In vitro three-dimensional organotypic culture models of the oral mucosa
Three-dimensional, organotypic models of the oral mucosa have been developed to study a wide variety of phenomena occurring in the oral cavity. Although a number of models have been developed in academic research labs, only a few models have been commercialized. Models from academic groups offer a broader range of phenotypes while the commercial models are more focused on the oral and gingival mucosa. The commercialized models are manufactured under highly controlled conditions and meet the requirements of quality standards, which leads to high levels of reproducibility. These in vitro models have been used to evaluate the irritancy of oral care products such as toothpastes, mouthwashes, and mucoadhesives. The effects of cigarette smoke on oral cavity tissues have been studied and compared to those of e-cigarettes. Oral tissue models have facilitated investigation of the mechanisms of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis and have been used to examine transbuccal drug delivery rates and the absorption of nanoparticles. Infection studies have investigated the effects of HIV-1 along with the effects of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. More recently, a differentiated oral tissue model has been shown to express the ACE2 receptor, which is known to be important for the receptor-mediated entry of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus into human cells and tissues. Hence, oral mucosal models may find application in determining whether viral infection of the oral mucosa is possible and whether such infection has implications vis-a-vis the current COVID-19 pandemic. As is apparent, these models are used in a broad variety of applications and often offer advantages versus animal models in terms of reproducibility, avoiding species extrapolation, and the ethical concerns related to human and animal experimentation. The goals of this paper are to review commercially available models of the human buccal and gingival mucosa and highlight their use to gain a better understanding of a broad range of phenomena affecting tissues in the oral cavity.
Quality Control, long term shipping, Oral Irritation, Transbuccal Drug Delivery, Fungal infection, Bacterial infection, Viral Infection, Oral Pathology, Cigarette smoke, tobacco, Ultraviolet Radiation, Skinethic Human Oral Epithelium (HOE), Skinethic Gingival Epithelium (HGE), GIN-300-FT, ORL 300-FT, ORL-200, GIN-100
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